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About Mongolia

Mongolia, situated in the heart of Asia. Mongolia is the country of grass of the steppes, sand dunes, mountains. Mongolia is a land of nomadism. Mongolia is the country of blue sky. Mongolia is a remarkable sunny country enjoying 250 sunny days a year. Come to Mongolia with Motor Brothers and find out what Mongolian hospitality means. You will be welcomed to share the nomad’s fire and food.

 

 

Capital

Ulaanbaatar city 1.500.000 inhabitants.

Location

Completely landlocked between two large neighbors – Russian Federation and China. It was immeasurably bigger during the period of Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan.

 

Territory

Mongolia is ranked as the seventh largest country in Asia and the 18th largest in the world. Mongolia covers an area of 1,564,100 sq. km, larger than the overall combined territory of Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy. Mongolia is the largest land-locked country.

 

Climate

Mongolia’s climate is extremely continental. The high central Asian mountain ranges surrounding Mongolia on practically all sides form a formidable barrier against the humid masses of air moving from the Atlantic and the Pacific, thus establishing the dominance of a continental climate in Mongolia. The typical climatic features are sharp temperature fluctuations with the maximum annual amplitudes reaching 90°C in Ulaanbaatar. Even the daily temperature may fluctuate by 20°C-30°C. The coldest month is January. In some regions, for instance in the northern part of the Khuvsgul aimag, the temperature drops to between -45°C and -52°C. Average winter: -24°C. The hottest month is July. On the greater part of Mongolian territory the air temperature rises to 20°C. In the south it is as high as 25°C-30°C.  Average summer: +20°C. The mean annual precipitation is 200 – 300mm of which 80 to 90 per cent falls within five months (May to September). Mongolia is the land of winds and especially sharp winds blow in spring. In the Gobi and steppe areas winds often develop into devastating storms, reaching a velocity of 15-25 meters per seconds.

 

Geographical features.

One of the highest countries in the world with one of Eurasia’s highest capitals. Mountains (40%) and rolling plateaus with vast semi-desert and desert plains in the center and a desert zone in the south. Average altitude: 1,580m above sea level. Ulaanbaatar: 1,380m above sea level. The highest point is the Tawan Bogd (4,374m) in the west and the lowest is the Khokh Nuur lake depression in the east – a more 554m above sea-level.

The geography of the country is characterized by great diversity. Mongolia is divided into six basic natural zones, differing in climate, landscape, soil, flora and fauna. The principal mountains are concentrated in the west, with much of this region having elevations above 2,000 meters and the country’s highest peaks permanently snow-capped land covered with glaciers. Mountains and dense forests predominate central and northern Mongolia and grasslands cover large areas of this region. Across the eastern part of the country stretches the vast grasslands of the Asian steppe. The steppe grades into the Gobi desert, which extends throughout southern Mongolia from the east to the west of the country. The Gobi is mostly gravelly, but also contains large areas of sand dunes in the drier areas of the Gobi near the southern border.

The country is dotted with hundreds of lakes, the largest being Uvs-Nuur (covering an area of 3,350 sq.kilometers), Huvsgul (2,620 sq. kilometers), and Khara Us-Nuur (1,852 sq.kilometers). Lake Huvsgul is also the largest fresh-water lake in Central Asia. The Orkhon (1,124 kilometres), the Kherlen (1,090 kilometres) and the Selenge (539 kilometres) are the largest rivers.

 

Tribes

Khalkha Mongol (85% of population), Kasach (7%), several Mongolian tribes (Burjat, Durwut, Bajat, Dariganga, Dsachtschin, Torgut). Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.

 

Traditions and
customs

Traditions and customs of Mongols have a wide range of common traditional practices and religious rituals.

Greetings:

When a visitor spots or approaches a ger he says “Nokhoi khorioroi”, which literally means “Call off the dog”. A hostess or a child usually comes out and invites the guest into a ger. The visitor should not carry a whip, hobble or weapon when he comes in and he hangs his knife from the belt. The visitor normally does not knock on the door. He crosses the threshold with the right foot. A guest greets inside, not outside. In Mongolia, the younger usually greets first and asks’ Ta sain baina uu?’ which means, “How are you?” or “How do you do?” Mongols living in the countryside are not used to shaking hands with visitors; instead, they greet by stretching their arms if they see each other for the first time in the year.

 

Wildlife

Mongolia has 136 mammal species, almost 400 different types of birds and 76 species of fish. From the abundance of wolves to the globally endangered Snow Leopard, there is a myriad of wildlife to track, photograph and hunt.

Nearly 10% is forest, mainly conifers in the northern region next to Siberia. Most of Mongolia is wide open ‘steppe’ grasslands in transition with the arid lands of the Gobi Desert.

The central and northern forest area is home to wolf, wild boar, elk, roedeer, and brown bear. Steppes and forest margins support marmot, muskrat, fox, steppe fox, and sable.

Western high Altai Mountain boasts a rich varied wildlife. Apart from common wolf and wild cats, such as lynx and Snow Leopard, Altai is home to the world’s largest wild sheep – Argali and Siberian ibex.

The Gobi Desert and the eastern Mongolian steppe are inhabited by thousands of gazelles. The rarest animal in Mongolia – the Gobi bear is found in the south western part of Gobi. Wild ass and wild camels are abundantly found in the desert while Argali and Gobi ibex also inhabit the rocky mountains within the Gobi region.

Wild horses have been reintroduced to the country from captivity abroad after being unseen for about thirty years in their home country. Bird life is rich and includes the golden eagle, bearded vulture and other birds of prey, while the country’s 2,000 lakes are a magnet for water birds including storks and gulls. The east of Mongolia is famous for its bird life, boasting lakes of storks and pelicans, while vultures can be seen across the country and species as rare as the Altai snowcock and the mute swan are still observed in the countryside.”